Coupled-wave theory of price formation
We develop a theory of bid and ask price dynamics where the two prices form due to interaction of buy and sell orders. In this model the two prices are represented by eigenvalues of a 2x2 price operator corresponding to“bid” and “ask” eigenstates. Matrix elements of price operator fluctuate in time which results in phase jitter for eigenstates. We show that the theory reflects very important characteristics of bid and ask dynamics and order density in the order book. Calibration examples are provided for stocks at various time scales. Lastly, this model allows to quantify and measure risk associated with spread and its fluctuations.